Western Criminology Review
Copyright Information for Readers

The Western Criminology Review retains all copyrights to articles and materials published herein. WCR policy for individuals is that they are required to apply the same principles of fair use as apply to printed publication. WCR articles and materials can be read online and downloaded for strictly personal use. However, they may not be copied for other individuals or organizations for resale or profit. WCR encourages the inclusion of URLs in other electronic or printed documents, but the text itself may not be published in either medium. Moreover, the text itself can not be edited or otherwise altered. Users may apply to the Editor for authorization to download material, copy or reprint it for uses other than those noted above. A fee may be payable.

Institutional entities such as libraries agree to the terms of WCR that follow.

The subscriber institution and permitted network users may:

Use WCR articles and materials for non-commercial purposes on the condition that no alterations be made to the text and proper citation be given to the author and WCR; download, save and print an article or articles or materials for personal use; download, save and print an article or articles or materials to distribute as multiple copies for teaching purposes as long as they are not sold. Wherever possible, live links to the WCR web site at should be made.

Under no circumstances should individual or institutional users create a so-called "mirror" of any written materials in the WCR web site — that is, an html version of any or all of the materials of the web site. Instead, live links to the WCR web site should be made.

The opinions expressed in the articles included are those of the authors and do not reflect necessarily the views of the Western Society of Criminology, the WCR, the Editor or WCR staff, Sam Houston State University, University of Alaska Anchorage, California State University, Sonoma State University or all units included within SHSU, UAA, CSUSB, and SSU.

Materials included in the WCR may reference other electronic sources through hypertext or other links that are not affiliated with the WCR. The WCR is not responsible for those links.


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© 1998–2012, Western Criminology Review. All rights reserved. ISSN 1096-4886
Last modified 22-Apr-2012
Western Society of Criminology